Dr. Sidney Barthwell was the founder of Barthwell Drugs, the largest Black-owned pharmacy chain in the U.S. After receiving his bachelor’s degree in pharmacy in 1929, Dr. Barthwell struggled to find work due to the Depression and racial discrimination. He was eventually hired at an underperforming pharmacy in Detroit. Barthwell persevered and, in 1933, bought the pharmacy and renamed it Barthwell Drugs. He became a well-known and respected businessman. He opened a new store every two years until he had thirteen stores across Detroit, becoming the biggest drugstore chain of Black ownership. Dr. Barthwell made it a point to help African Americans in his community find work. He was the first African American member of the Detroit Retail Druggist Association, President of the Booker T. Washington Business Association, and a lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).